Monthly archives: May 2012

Weekly Shenanigans at PP Towers

The past few weeks have been an exciting time for Paines Plough and there has been plenty going on in the office as well…

We had a visit last Thursday from an old friend who turned up with a lovely present from Sugar Sin:

Sadly it has only lasted a few days with us – despite Stephanie’s attempts to hide it Tara still managed to keep finding it!

It did start a controversial debate in the office about favourite sweets though. Sean has a hankering for sherbet lemons, whilst Claire prefers Jazzies. White mice divided opinion but cola bottles were a universal success.

Another big development this week was the Feng Shui of the store cupboard.   The piles of scripts, files and office equipment had been threatening to engulf anyone who dared enter. Luckily the lovely Mainzelmännchen (Germanic house-elves) have come to our rescue and it is now looking spick and span:

And of course there has been the amazing sunny weather to enjoy, with creative chats in the park and ice cream in the office. We also discovered the new PropStore bar down on the South Bank next to the National, constructed out of various props and set from past shows. We’re just hoping the hot weather will continue so we can go have a drink there on Friday evenings.

LX, ready and GO!

After a long day and 2 Gin and tonic’s I agreed to do a blog, describing what I do during a typical show.  But this blog would be far too long if I included every detail of what I do so here is a brief insight….

I’m the Deputy Stage Manager on Love, Love, Love, which means I predominantly, Call/Cue the show. During rehearsals I’m in the room taking down the actors blocking, prop notes, costume notes etc.  In also make any sound effects so can often be heard making the sound of a doorbell!  Then moving into Tech week I put all the cues for Lighting, Sound, Actors, and so on into the ‘book’ or ‘prompt copy’.

The first time we run the show with all guns blazing is very exciting but nerve racking at the same time.  The DSM waits for ‘Clearance’ from the Front of House Manager and then puts everyone on standby.  Once everyone is braced I take a note of the time take a breath and then say LXQ1, SQ 1 GO and we’re off on the 2 hour 35 minute rollercoaster.

I’m sat right at the back of the auditorium in a soundproof box with a very big glass window which has the feel of a goldfish bowl, as the last row of audience are sat right in front of me.  Sometimes people will give me smile or a wave, which is nice!  I get a great view of everyone’s reactions though, which is thrilling to watch.  People’s heads often blocks my view of the stage so I have two monitors one, which is colour, and one, which is zoomed in so that I can see when the TV and record player are switched on and off.

Then comes the interval, while the audience goes for a 20 minute relax and wonder what’s coming next, Stage Management and the amazing Crew zoom from Act 1 into Act 2.  The SM team quickly strike all the Act 1 props from the set and jump onto the Act 3 truck out of the way of the Act 1 truck which is being pushed off into the wings, and the carpet for Act 2 is laid.  Then it’s all hands on deck to get all the Act 2 furniture and dressing on and set in the right place.  The Sound & Lighting departments have speakers and lights to strike and then set in place while all this is going on.  No one ever stops, the time flies by suddenly it is time for Act 2 Beginners and time to Call the Audience back to their seats.   The DSM is chief timekeeper and so I’m always checking my trusty Casio Digital watch for how long we’ve had.

Then we’re off into Act 2 and the countdown until the next interval begins.  The minute the house lights come up Paul, the Sound Op, and I are up and running down to the stage (avoiding bumping into Ushers) to start the second Interval Change.  It’s the mad dash to get everything off and into ‘magic props corner’ where all the act 2 furniture and props are stored.  And then it’s a bit like a dance knowing where to go and where to stand so you don’t get squished or get in the way, then you know when it’s the right time to move.  Our SM team consists of 3; Ali the Stage Manager, Shannon the Assistant Stage Manager and me!  And we all have our own little jobs in the interval changes and we weave in and out around each other getting everything done.  Then it’s that time again and I’m calling the audience back to their seats and the Actors to the stage.  Act 3 is a bit like the home straight because the intervals are behind us, but it’s not over yet.

Act 3 is the quietest for me Cue wise and so I just keep an eye on everything to check all is as it should be.  But I also sneak a peak at the audience to see how they’re reacting.

Once the curtain comes down for the final time, it’s time for me to make a note of all the running times.  I then tell the Company how long each Act and the Show as a whole have been and then let them know their call for the next show. Then it’s off to the computer to write the Show Report.  The Show Report give details of anything that has gone wrong, broken, been amazing or just needs mentioning.   Also the Running Times, who was working on the show and how many tickets were sold, are all noted down.  Mike Bartlett has also given me the challenge of writing a pun on each show report, which I’m failing miserably at!  Any suggestions?

I think it’s time for a Gin & Tonic….

Sarah Caselton-Smith

We LOVE, LOVE, LOVE a post show chat

Last night the audience at LOVE, LOVE, LOVE were treated to a post-show discussion with the cast of the show and director James Grieve. The evening was hosted by the Royal Court Literary Manager Chris Campbell. The company discussed the technical challenges associated with staging the production in 3 different time periods.

Victoria Hamilton (Sandra) revealed that when she first read the script she thought that “no one would ever believe we are 19”, but that the changes in speech rhythm and the stunning wigs made it all possible. They also commented upon the strong reaction the play provoked in audiences, provoking interesting debates in the bar afterwards.

The discussion extended to the audience as people discussed whether an age divide was discernible in peoples responses to the play, were Sandra or Ken were more to blame for their children’s fate and if Love, Love, Love is about different eras or family relationships .

Sam Troughton (Henry) also revealed how he spends his time during Acts 2 & 3 – watching Mad Men!


Half-time – England vs. Germany

And time flies and flies and flies and my half-time at Paines Plough is already over. The last weeks have been so busy that I hardly had time to digest them followed by a massive attack of exhaustion which I had to nurture with a lot of sleep over the weekends when I am not going back to my second job at the market, distributing German delicatessen on Saturdays.

Paines Plough opened recently two shows in London, Love, Love, Love at the Royal Court Theatre and WASTED at the Roundhouse in Camden before its tour continues and finally ends at the TakeOver Festival in York next Saturday. Furthermore we organised a fundraiser night at the Royal Court, as well as opened the full season for 2012 and tickets for the Roundabout run in London at Shoreditch Town Hall have gone on sale. What looks like cakewalk was a lot of hard work for everyone behind the curtain – but the show must go on.

The new bedside reading...

By the way it was literally a cakewalk: I cannot remember one day in the recent weeks when we had no cake, cookies or other treats. The warning of the last intern and the Paines Plough members from my very first day came to its proof. So I am still cycling regardless the weather conditions reckless in London’s traffic and still avoid the rackety lift but climbing all four floors by feet.

Apart from being at theatre for work, which also includes enjoying the shows most of the time, I follow a pilgrimage to London’s theatres seeing as much as I can – which does not help getting enough sleep. I enjoy especially new writing but also saw my first West End production.

A massive hit I was curious to attend was seeing Simon Steven’s Three Kingdoms at the Lyric Hammersmith again. I can remember my last days in Munich being a regular at the Kammerspiele and attending the press night there in autumn. I had a huge discussion with the writer, actors and the director’s assistant about the differences of German/Continental and British theatre and the directors different relationship to writing. I could not only see following twitter how many people loved Sebastian Nübling’s show but to my surprise reading a lot of dismissive critics. I would have guessed, after the show has been an incredible success in Germany (and is now about to tour in a very small scale), both positions, audience and press, would either love or hate it. But the opinions differed immensely. James and George were lucky enough to attend a workshop with Sebastian Nübling about German directing last week and I was happy and still am engaging myself in discussions about theories and theatre practicalities I have learned during my studies which suddenly come to life and being passed on.

My interest in theatre, although it is a tough industry, is exhaustless and I started to read a theoretical book about aesthetics and performance which was living in my bookshelf in Munich covered in dust for years and survived a move across Europe over kilometers – and now I read it with pleasure.

Stephanie Königer


Sarah’s First Week at Paines Plough

I’ve just completed my first week at Paines Plough and it’s been a busy start. In the past 4 days we have announced our full programme 2012 and the Roundabout season has gone on sale, held a fundraising night at the Royal Court and introduced Stephanie, the wonderful PP intern, to the joys of Minstrels! It’s always very nerve-wracking beginning a new job, but the whole team have been so friendly and welcoming that it has been easy to relax.

I will be spending the next 6 months at Paines Plough working as a production assistant as part of the Stage One apprenticeship scheme. Stage One is a charity run by SOLT and dedicated to supporting new producers – one of the schemes they run places new producers in different commercial and subsidised theatre offices, where you are assigned a mentor and able to gain hands-on experience.  Having completed a placement at a West End and touring production company I am excited to see how life differs at Paines Plough and to learn how the company works.

There are lots of exciting productions coming up to look forward to including The Roundabout Season, The 8th, London, Smithereens and Good With People, and do see Love,Love,Love if you haven’t already  – it has been extended until Saturday 9th June and you can book tickets at the Royal Court’s website or by phoning the box office on 020 7565 5000

The critics get WASTED

As well as being the number 1 show to see in London this week (according to Time Out) Kate Tempest’s WASTED has been finding favour with the critics. Here’s a quick round-up:

“Performances are tight, punchy and second to none… the energy, the originality, the humour and the insightful observations make it an unmissable experience.”
Will Stone, Whatsonstage

“There’s a pulsing energy to performances and production, directed with flair by James Grieve…Tempest provides a welcome shot in drama’s arm… a talent to be harnessed, not wasted.”
Fiona Mountford, Evening Standar

“Tempest has created a layered lyrical portrait of a shared moment that’s so evanescent it’s in danger of slipping away…hazy expansive words rise and fill the stage with an atmosphere that’s thick with urban rhythms and blues…a slender, wistful three-way play that’s as seductive as smoke.”
Caroline McGinn, Time Out

“An ingenious whole that’s funny and true…dynamic poetry that’s full of vividly phrased acute observation…spot-on.”
Elisabeth Mahoney, The Guardian

“Phew, this hits the spot, and hard… a punchy, poignant and perceptive play about life… Tempest’s writing is smart and electric, all pith and wit…If you ever get the feeling that you’d like to live a little bit more, a little bit differently, a little bit louder, seize the day and grab a ticket to this uplifting and lively production.”
Evelyn Curlet, The Stage

“Bitterly funny…Tempest’s persuasive collision of realism and spoken word gig is given punchily paced direction by James Grieve, who with the excellent performers has tapped into a rhythm that rarely falters… Her words paint a vivid, pulsing mural of a city writhing with its own restlessness and discontent, yet straitjacketed by a numbing sense of inertia.”
Catherine Love, Exeunt Magazine

“Cary Crankson, Ashley George and Lizzy Watts seem to have jumped straight out of your life and onto the stage…a real blast of youthful atmosphere and energy…For the audience of twenty-somethings, Wasted aims straight for the heart.”
EJ Robinson, A Younger Theatre

“James Grieve directs it cleverly. He fills the stage with the paraphernalia of a rock concert.”
Anne Morley-Priestman, Whatsonstage ★★★★

THE ROUNDABOUT SEASON at Shoreditch Town Hall

So yesterday we rather excitingly announced our full Programme for 2012 which includes new plays touring far and wide, from Aberdeen to Exeter and everywhere in between. One of the biggest things we announced yesterday was THE ROUNDABOUT SEASON coming to Shoreditch Town Hall after a successful run at our co-producers’ venue Sheffield Theatres and tickets go on sale at the National Theatre Box Office TOMORROW morning at 10am.

The three brilliant new plays we’re bringing to Shoreditch are by some of the top writers in British Theatre- Duncan Macmillan, Nick Payne, and Penelope Skinner and we couldn’t be more pleased that their plays are going to be seen by new audiences this Autumn in our ROUNDABOUT Auditorium- previews start 19th September and the Season runs until 27th October 2012.

For those of you who don’t know about these cracking plays, here’s what they’re all about:

LUNGS by Duncan Macmillan

I could fly to New York and back every day for seven years and still not leave a carbon footprint as big as if I have a child. Ten thousand tonnes of CO2. That’s the weight of the Eiffel Tower. I’d be giving birth to the Eiffel Tower.

In a time of global anxiety, terrorism, erratic weather and political unrest, a young couple want a child but are running out of time. If they over think it, they’ll never do it. But if they rush, it could be a disaster.

They want to have a child for the right reasons. Except, what exactly are the right reasons? And what will be the first to destruct – the planet or the relationship?


I am actually incredibly scared.  And not how you might think.  I am scared, that once this war is over, and I am sent home, that you won’t be here.  That you will have left.

When Leonard and Violet embark on their first night together, they know it also might be their last. It’s 1942 and in a small hotel room in Bath, the couple prepare for Leonard’s departure to war, and dream of what the future may bring. As the bombs begin to fall, they know their world won’t ever be the same again.

But the world keeps turning and in the year 2002, the couple must decide what was lost and what was gained.

A new play about the impact of the Second World War on two ordinary lives and a love that spans more than sixty years.

THE SOUND OF HEAVY RAIN by Penelope Skinner

Laughing. Talking. Hours in cafes drinking coffee. Chatting about boys. Girls. Romance. Sharing a plate of chips. It was one of those friendships…I don’t know how to explain…like…Love.

Cabaret singer Foxie O’Hara vanished without a tweet two weeks ago from Mrs Whistle’s Lodge.

On that very same night Foxie’s friend Maggie Brown, a temporary secretary, announced her engagement to local businessman Dougal Cheese.

Concerned and desperate Maggie seeks the help of Dabrowski  P.I. to find her missing friend.

But before Dabrowski can blow the whistle on the mystery of Foxie O’Hara he must delve into the history of the girls’ relationship; the deeper he digs, the darker the case becomes, until the real question he needs to answer isn’t ‘where is Foxie’….but ‘who is Foxie’?

 How to book tickets:

At Paines Plough we’re all about the playwright and making sure that as many people as possible get the chance to see their moving, gripping, powerful new plays and that’s why we’re so thrilled to be bringing them to Shoreditch Town Hall.

The tickets are £20 each or if you fancied seeing all three plays on the same day there are a limited number of tickets which are £45 but you have to book those on the phone by calling the National Theatre Box Officeon 020 7452 3000.

For full performance schedule and  tickets you can also book via their website at


Announcing Programme 2012

We’re super excited to announce our full Programme 2012 today.

We’re presenting 11 productions in 44 places across the country from Edinburgh to The Isle of Wight.

Some stuff you already know about, like Matt Hartley‘s SIXTY FIVE MILES which we co-produced earlier in the year with our friends at Hull Truck, and the two shows we have currently running in London – Mike Bartlett‘s LOVE, LOVE, LOVE at The Royal Court and Kate Tempest’s WASTED at The Roundhouse.

In addition we’ve lined up some real treats for you, wherever you live. WASTED continues its tour to festivals in Brighton and York. There’s a national tour of our Manchester International Festival smash hit soul opera THE 8TH by Paul Heaton & Che Walker culminating with a very special performance at The Latitude Festival. Simon Stephens’ LONDON opens its tour at Salisbury Playhouse in a co-production with both Salisbury and Live Theatre, Newcastle.

For the first time in three years, we’re presenting a season of work across London, all of which has premiered outside the capital. Love, Love, Love is currently running at the Royal Court. Wasted visits the Roundhouse. The 8th opens its tour at The Barbican. And we’re thrilled to be bringing our Roundabout Season to to town in the Autumn. Three new plays by Duncan Macmillan, Nick Payne and Penelope Skinner will be presented in our own purpose built portable in-the-round Roundabout auditorium at Shoreditch Town Hall.

Also we’re bringing back our 2009 hit GOOD WITH PEOPLE by David Harrower for The Edinburgh Festival. A new series of Come to Where I’m From will include playwrights from Brighton, Cheltenham, Chipping Norton and the Isle Of Wight; and we’re delighted to again be working with the students at Rose Bruford College on Sean Buckley’s SMITHEREENS.

Here’s a note from James & George:

“We’re hugely proud to announce our third annual programme of work as Paines Plough’s Artistic Directors.

“Our passion for new plays continues to grow thanks to the extraordinary playwrights that lie at the heart of our company. This year we’re presenting work by a huge range of writers, from Olivier Award winners to the stars of the future.writers who between them have won 2 Oliviers, 3 George Devine Awards, 2 Bruntwood Awards and a host of other accolades, whilst continuing to identify and support the stars of the future.

“We believe everyone should have the chance to see outstanding new plays, no matter where they live, so our commitment to national touring deepens this year with visits to over 40 different UK villages, towns and cities. We’re piloting new touring circuits The Local, Neighbourhood and Campus to make sure our unique brand of new plays reach every corner of the UK.

“After two years working outside the capital, we’ve been overwhelmed by the demand for our work to be seen in London. In response we’ve put together a London Season of productions, all of which have already been seen on tour. In typical Paines Plough style they’re spread right across the city so audiences can experience the work in their local theatre – whether that’s Shoreditch Town Hall, the Barbican, the Royal Court, the Roundhouse or the Albany, amongst others.

“As ever, we’re working in partnership across the programme, and are delighted to be working with old friends as well as new – including the National Theatre, Manchester International Festival, the Roundhouse, Birmingham Rep, Sheffield Theatres, Latitude Festival, National Student Drama Festival, Salisbury Playhouse and Live Theatre Newcastle.

“With these partners, we’re presenting astounding new plays by world class playwrights in places nationwide for people everywhere. We’re priveleged and excited to do so, and look forward to welcoming people to a Paines Plough show in their local theatre.”

So there you have it: Programme 2012. We hope you’re as excited by it as we are.

Lots of Love from the critics

Here’s a quick round-up of what the critics have said so far about LOVE, LOVE, LOVE

“Mike Bartlett’s Love, Love, Love is one of the most ambitious, and most accomplished, domestic dramas in a long while and in James Grieve’s fine production boasts two performances by Victoria Hamilton and Ben Miles that will surely feature at the year’s end in all the awards lists”
Michael Coveney, ★★★★★

“The audience was roaring its approval…an exciting evening, dart-sharp, horribly true.”
Quentin Letts, Daily Mail ★★★★★

“I loved it. Not least the laughing groans of recognition from the stalls, old and young…the best Court comedy since Clybourne Park…very funny at the start, bitterly so in the middle, and jerkingly moving at the end”
Libby Purves, The Times ★★★★ (paywall)

“Mike Bartlett’s scorching comedy…ambitious and hugely amusing…sensationally well played in James Grieve’s acerbically funny production. Victoria Hamilton and Ben Miles age four decades in under three hours and are at their best in their 1990s showdown: a drink-fuelled exchange that has the audience holding its breath.” Sarah Hemming, Financial Times ★★★★

“Rivetingly watcheable…a peach of a performance from Victoria Hamilton…Bartlett exhilaratingly combines the domestic and the epic.”
Michael Billington, The Guardian ★★★★

“Wow, this one packs a punch…a thrilling high voltage co-production with Paines Plough, this is a play that has you laughing uproariously at one moment and wincing painfully the next…scenes of extraordinary intensity and emotional truth shot through with dark humour…James Grieve’s powerful, evocative and elegantly designed production…haunting, heart-wrenching performances from Claire Foy and George Rainsford…one leaves the theatre in no doubt that the Court has another timely, hard-hitting success on its hands.”
Charles Spencer, Daily Telegraph ★★★★

“Love, Love, Love sparkles…both funny and furious…Victoria Hamilton is the outstanding star.”
Susannah Clapp, Observer

“Very very funny and very very enjoyable…a first in contemporary theatre…thoroughly recommended.”
BBC Radio 4 (Listen again on iPlayer)

“Bartlett is a big talent…James Grieve’s stylish, sexy production…Victoria Hamilton is its star: she takes Sandra from hippy-chick 19-year-old to monstrous milf, to radiant retiree with extravagant conviction and an amazing voice full of vice, that oozes fag-smoke, wine and unrepentant pleasure.”
Caroline McGinn, Time Out ★★★★

“Piercingly funny…illuminated by some beautifully nuanced performances…the superb Hamilton and Miles.”
Henry Hitchings, Evening Standard ★★★★

“Highly entertaining…Bartlett’s lacerating dialogue balances satiric intent with painful truth about a long-married couple who feel trapped…Miles and Hamilton simply don’t miss a trick as they tear strips off one another. Their zinging precision means bitter laughs fly.”
David Benedict, Variety

“With wide-eyed rage and bayonet wit Mike Bartlett’s greatest play roughs up the Baby Boomers in three glorious acts…The cast is uniformly brilliant.”
Stewart Pringle, Exeunt Magazine ★★★★★

Love, Love, Love is now extending until Saturday 9th June 2012. To book tickets you can visit the Royal Court website or ring the box office on 020 7565 5000.


A day in the life of a WASTED CSM on tour – on caffeine.

A blog by Harriet Stewart – Company Stage Manager on WASTED

7am. The day starts with a rather invigorating shock that my bedside alarm is actually going off. It feels like 20 minutes since I set it. Stage management are always the first to arrive, last to leave, so the early start is very usual, and yet so is the shock. Whether at home, or in a Travelodge – the day always begins with tea – Caffeine Hit Number 1.

8am. After a shower and quick breakfast, its onward to the venue. Having our fantastic producer, Hanna, with me on tour, is a huge support and I can rely on her for the morning van run, feeling as bleary eyed as me! I can rely on her too for joining me in Caffeine Hit Number 2.

10am. Arrive at venue. Engine off, and it’s a speedy van-unload, helped by any venue techs I have working with me that day. (Hopefully 2. On good days: 3; bad days: 1;  and days we don’t want to talk about: 0)

10.15-10.30am. Recce the venue, talk to the tech manager about how we are going to set the show up, and what the plan for the day shall be.

The challenge, and an interesting part of a small-scale tour such as WASTED, is taking the show to a huge variety of spaces, from 600-seater venues with a traditional proscenium arch, to a shop front, literally, with 4 lights on a stand and a domestic electrical set up which won’t manage all our equipment. Every venue can create a different challenge – sometimes, trying to work out how the set will fit in, I have the Crypton Factor theme tune in my head. Seriously.

It means the show and company have to be adaptable and I have to be able to think on my feet and problem-solve each day, to get the show up and looking at its absolute best.

Coffee anyone? Caffeine Hit Number 3.

10.45am.Then it’s straight on to the dance floor. No, I’m not throwing shapes – that comes later. It’s the first part of the set to be laid. Followed by: the rest of the set, rigging the projector, getting the av working, and running in our own sound desk and equipment, and our extra set-lights. All being well, and problem free, I have time to stop and have a bite to eat for lunch.


1pm. Plonk myself down with Hanna who is hard at work at her laptop in the venue cafe, or dressing room if no such thing exists! After munching and distracting her from her work its back into the theatre to start on the lighting – with coffee number 3, Caffeine Hit Number 4 in hand.

2pm. Each venue pre-rigs our lighting plan, so when I get to the venue all I need to do is focus the lights, then do checks. A focus can take anything from an hour (if you’re lucky), to 2 and half hours. And this is where the chocolate comes in… and possibly, dare I say, Coffee 4 Caffeine Hit Number 5.


4pm. If everything is on schedule, I’ll have a couple of hours to finish little jobs off – running sound checks, lighting checks, setting props, ironing costume, tidying up, re-painting parts of the set, making props, etc. … the list is long.

6pm. The cast arrive: often a welcome sight. Time to run a cue to cue on stage – giving me a chance to check all the lighting states are working as they should be and everything is lit well enough. The cast walk each scene – stopping when I need them to. As venues and the lights used can be so different, this often involves a lot of tweaking and updating states, adding in light where needed.

6.15pm. I run a microphone check with the cast – and afterwards, we run the first part of the show purely for sound purposes, so I can make sure the levels are all correct – its also a good opportunity for the actors to run lines, get focussed, clear any, hmmm, hang-overs.

6.50pm. If I’m lucky, I may have a snack and sit down before we get to the half – but more often than not there are little bits to be done. By this time I’m off the coffee and moved onto the harder stuff: coke (diet) – if things are bad, it may even be a red bull – Caffeine Hit Numbers 6, 7 and 8.


7.10pm. The cast and I vacate the stage area and auditorium around 15 mins before the show for the house to open.

7.20pm. Dressing room. Essential group hug.

7.20pm 45secs.  Yes that was a 45 second hug. And now it’s time to leave the actors at the 5 with the fond farewell, “See you on the other side” and get into position in my control area.

7.30pm. I love this show and never get bored of watching the performance, and cueing it is always fun – I operate the sound and av and the microphones live during the show and I cue the lighting to the lx op.


8.30pm. Once the show has finished, its to the bar… but only for one and a quick 15 min sit down! The last small job of the day is still to come… the get out. Luckily, our get outs are all hands on deck, so the team can be 7 or 8 strong with all the company getting involved – we are now a well oiled machine and our record get out time is 50 minutes including the van pack – the giant game of Jenga!



10pm. Van packed, drinks done, final checks to make sure nothing from WASTED is left behind, and its back in the fun bus and off to the pub… or dance floor… or hotel… or next town… or sometimes, if we’re lucky, home.

**All times are subject to change and are made at CSM’s discretion.